Chapter 5 - Transport, movement and infrastructure for Kilmallock’s growth
The planning policy for transport is to:
- improve accessibility; reduce dependency on fossil fueled transport (private car, commercial vehicles and public transport), and encourage the use of energy efficient forms of transport and use of alternatives alternative fuels, and
- promote the principles of smarter travel, support sustainable modes of movement including walking, cycling and public transport, and
User safety will not be compromised by development proposals. All proposals shall comply with the policies, objectives and development management standards of the Limerick County Development Plan 2010- 2016 as extended in relation to transport.
The planning policy for infrastructure is to:
- Facilitate relevant agencies in the provision of quality infrastructure to develop and sustain Kilmallock’s competitiveness as a town to live in, work, visit and invest in.
All proposals shall comply with the policies, objectives and development management standards of the Limerick County Development Plan 2010-2016 (as extended) in relation to infrastructure.
5.1 The need for quality transport
The Government’s policy Smarter Travel: A Sustainable Transport Future, the Mid-West Regional Planning Guidelines 2010-2022, and the Limerick County Development Plan 2010-2016 (as extended), seek to improve and capitalise existing transport infrastructure and design for mode sustainable mode of transport support an low-carbon society, for example walking, cycling and public transport including non-fossil fuel transport. National policy also acknowledges the need to improve the alignment of spatial and transport planning.
Smarter Travel establishes five key goals for transport in Ireland and this Proposed LAP is just one mechanism to assist in the implementation of the goals and objectives of Government. These goals are: the reduction in traffic demand, maximising the efficiency of the transport network, the reduction for reliance on fossil fuel, the reduction of emission, and to improve accessibility to transport. Achieving these goals would also contribute to Ireland’s climate change/adaptation ambitions. It is estimated that nationally, in 2015, the private car and the road freight accounted for 52% and 24% respectively of transport carbon dioxide emissions.  At a national level, Smarter Travel has a target that by 2020 the percentage of those travelling to work by car will decrease from 65% to 45%. The 2016 Census records 60.9% of commuters in Kilmallock town travel by car, and 33.7% of commuters travel by foot or bicycle, which is higher than the national average and reflects the compact form of the town. In 2016, a week long traffic survey commissioned by the Council on Sheare’s Street recorded weekday average total traffic of 4339 vehicles passing through the town, through its main street. 92% of these vehicles were private car, 0.3% were bicycles, and 7.2% were commercial vehicles (vans and HGVs). Refer to Figure 5.1 below. This volume of traffic through the main street of the town has a negative impact in terms of environmental quality, public realm, pedestrian safety, and congestion at times. An indicative route corridor as identified by the 2009 Kilmallock LAP as an alternative road to alleviate the volume of traffic including HGV traffic. The Council provides off-street parking at Sheare’s Street, at the rear of the Supervalu, and at the Court Service/Municipal District Offices/Kilmallock library.
Figure 5.1 Traffic survey, Sheare Street, 6 Nov – 12 Nov, 2016
5.2 Public transport
In terms of public transport, there is a Local Link service connecting Kilmallock with Charleville and Mitchelstown. Bus Eireann provides a twice-daily service Monday – Friday on the Limerick – Kilfinane route at bus stops on Lord Edward. The Intercity rail (Dublin – Cork – Tralee) line is located to the south of the town. The Kilmallock railway station – a Protected Structure closed in 1976. The Council will support any future plans for re-use of the station for public transport.
In order to implement national transport policy, encourage more sustainable means of movement including walking, cycling and public transport, and smarter mobility the Council will work with other agencies to promote and support sustainable travel in the interest of healthier lifestyle, low carbon economy, environmental quality and safety.
This plan supports the principle of a modal shift away from the private car to walking and cycling for journeys within the town, through appropriate land use zoning, and promoting a compact settlement with a complementary range of land uses throughout the town which are easily accessible by walking, cycling and the car. Taking a holistic approach, increasing the use of sustainable transport modes would improve the quality of life, contributing to promoting Kilmallock town as a desirable place to live, work in, and invest in as a settlement of regional importance. Future development proposals for residential development should demonstrate compact walkable /cyclable communities and neighbourhoods with the shortest linkages to community facilities, open space and the town centre making walking and cycling more attractive for local trips. At the design stage, consideration should be given to the national guidance documents including Sustainable Residential Development in Urban Areas – Guidelines for Planning Authorities DECLG (2009); National Cycle Policy Framework 2009-2020 as part of Smarter Transport – A Sustainable Transport Future DTTS (2009); and Design Manual for Urban Roads and Streets, DTTS and DoECLG, March 2013; and Spatial Planning and National Road Guidelines, DoECLG and DTTS. These should be submitted in the design brief as part of the planning application process. Any proposals on the indicative distributor road should ensure that the frontage of buildings address the road as ‘frontage-free’ roads often result in a hostile environment for both pedestrian and cyclist.
As the electric car market develops, it is imperative that, in tandem with house construction, suitable home charging infrastructure be provided in all new residential development. At present home charging of electrical vehicles is the most effective, economical and eco-friendly means to refuel low emission electric cars in Ireland. In 2015, it was estimated that the private car accounted for 52% of the Irelands transport carbon dioxide emissions.  Provision of charging infrastructure in the building of new homes assists implementation of national policy in relation to climate actions, clean air and low carbon economy.
The objectives for transport are as follows:
Objective TI1: Network of pedestrian and cycle facilities
It is an objective of the Council to encourage walking and cycling as more convenient, popular and safe methods of movement in Kilmallock in accordance with the principles of Smarter Travel and any other subsequent guidelines at national level. Future development proposals for the new residential, serviced sites, community and recreation, and enterprise lands will demonstrate at design stage consideration of Smarter Travel, mobility and connectivity with the town centre and community infrastructure. Combined off-road footpath and cycleway link will be encouraged along the proposed distributor road and the River Loobagh.
Objective TI2: Measures in support of public transport
It is an objective of the Council to:
(a) Facilitate measures to improve public transport infrastructure within Kilmallock, and networks to adjacent settlements including Limerick City, Charleville and Mitchelstown.
(b) Support the future development of the railway station for public transport, including improved interconnection with Limerick and Charleville.
Objective TI3: Car parking and traffic management
It is an objective of the Council to encourage the provision of off-street public parking areas as part of any application for development. New development will provide the charging infrastructure for electric vehicles of a scale appropriate for the proposal as negotiated with the Council. Applicants are advised to avail of pre-planning discussions prior to making a planning application.
Objective TI4: Safeguard of the capacity of the regional road network in Kilmallock
It is the objective of the Council to safeguard the capacity of the following regional roads; the R512, R515 and R518, ensuring future developments do not compromise the strategic functions of these roads.
Objective TI5: Development of Enterprise and Employment land
It is the objective of the Council that any future development proposal for the lands zoned for Enterprise and Employment shall include a Traffic and Transport Assessment, in accordance with Objective IN O2: Traffic and Transport Assessments of the County Development Plan, to ensure that the local road network and associated junctions with the regional road have sufficient capacity to facilitate the extent of the development planned. Furthermore, the costs of implementing mitigation measures arising from the traffic impact shall be borne by the developer.
Objective TI7: Movement and accessibility
It is an objective of the Council to:
(a) Encourage the development of safe and efficient movement and accessibility networks that will cater for the needs of all users and to encourage priority for walking and cycling, public transport provision and accident reduction;
(b) Ensure that adequate facilities and access provisions are provided for those less mobile in the community. The Council will strive to ensure that the provision of such facilities will be in line with current good practice in relation to such issues;
(c) Only permit development where a safe and secure access can be provided;
(d) Require that roads provided to serve private housing developments are designed to a high standard;
(e) Improve directional signposting in the town;
(f) Advertising signage adjacent to the regional roads (R512, R515 and R518) will be prohibited;
(g) Promote services and infrastructure to increase public transport use, cycling and walking and deliver significant modal shift from private car usage to more sustainable transport modes;
(h) Provision of clear and unambiguous carriageway markings and associated directional signage indicating directional priorities for traffic;
(i) Facilitate the improvement of junctions on public roads, including the junction at the R512 and L8576 at Glenfield. Refer to the Land use zoning map in Appendix 1.
(j) Promote the delivery of a western distributor road to allow for improved accessibility, a more efficient road network, and connectivity to the N20 upgrade to motorway status. Any proposals on the indicative distributor road should ensure that the frontage of buildings address the road in the interest of public realm.
5.3 The need for quality infrastructure
A key consideration for the competitiveness of Kilmallock to attract people, business, and inward investment to sustain a diverse, integrated community is the availability and quality of infrastructure. Material infrastructure refers to roads, water supply, waste-water treatment, waste management, flood prevention, telecommunications and fibre optic technology. The Council will continue to work with the various agencies to improve infrastructure in the town.
(i) Public water supply, sewage treatment, surface water drainage
The treatment plant in Kilmallock was upgraded in 2011 and there is sufficient capacity for the envisaged growth of the town. The WWTP is designed for 4,000 PE (population equivalent) and the envisaged population growth will not exceed a total population of 4,000 within the life space of this Plan. Similarly, the future demand for public water supply is sufficient. The Kilmallock River Water Treatment Plant is designed for a maximum throughput of 1850 m3/day and can be supplemented from the Jamestown/Effin supply when needed. The current demand requirement is of the order of 1300 m3/day. There is over 60 hours storage provided at the reservoir. The Council, as an agent of Irish Water will continue to work with the agency with regard to water supply and sewage treatment.
In terms of surface water drainage, a combined system disposes of foul and storm water in parts of town. This may have implications for the capacity of the existing sewerage network, particularly during periods of high rainfall. Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) should be a consideration in all future development proposal. The extent of paved and other hard surface areas reduces the capacity of the soil to absorb run off and may increase the risk of flash flooding. A sustainable approach to urban drainage encompasses a whole range of approaches to surface water drainage including:
- Source control measures including recycling or re-use of grey water;
- Infiltration devices to allow water to soak into the ground including individual soak aways and communal facilities;
- Permeable surface treatments that in suitable locations allow rainwater and run off to infiltrate into permeable material below ground and provide storage if needed; and
- Water attenuation designs that can hold excess water and that can be emptied gradually and in a controlled manner in drier periods.
The Planning Authority will normally be able to advise of sensitivities on particular sites, that will demand some SUDS measures to be adopted. From the initial design phases to subsequent consideration of planning issues and construction, consideration should be given to the incorporation of the principles of sustainable urban drainage into the new development.
The use of SUDS mechanisms will be one of the responses to climate change issues in that it is through such measures that flooding, currently seen as one of the major effects of climate change, can be alleviated. There will be a need for further adaptation of strategies in the future and the Council will, where necessary and appropriate, put these measures in place.
(ii) Flood Risk Management
The Council is committed to managing flood risk in accordance with the principles set out in Government guidance ‘The Planning System and Flood Risk Management’ (DEHLG and OPW, Nov, 2009). A stage 1 flood risk assessment has been prepared for Kilmallock Flood risk assessment maps (FRA) are available for Kilmallock under the OPW’s CFRAM study. As a response the LAP designates any lands located in the Flood zone as open space.
The Planning Authority will require applications in areas at risk of flooding to be supported by a comprehensive flood risk assessment. All flood risk assessment should have regard to national flood hazard mapping, predicted changes in flood events resulting from climate change and the River Shannon Catchment Flood Risk and Management Plan Studies (CFRAM) when completed by the OPW.
(iii) Waste Management
Limerick City and County Council in collaboration with adjoining local authorities prepared a Southern Regional Waste Management Plan 2014-2020. The plan incorporates policies and objectives for waste management in the region. There is a civic recycling centre provided by the Council in the town.
(iv) Broadband, Smart Homes and Buildings
Smart Homes and Smart Buildings have high-speed connections to the Internet while sensors and data will be used for a better, more sustainable use of energy and increased use of clean, renewable energy sources. The Smart Homes will also facilitate people to live longer, more fulfilling and secure lives in their homes, will enable new services, new channels of communications and entertainment while mundane tasks will be automated and decisions will be made using artificial intelligence. Collective data generated by sensors and IoT devices will lead to better energy use in each of the homes and buildings. District heating or energy storage solutions connected with new forms of transport such as e-mobility solutions and electric car sharing will encouraged to create a smart energy settlement and a digital economy. The Council is guided by national policy in relation to facilitation of improved internet and broadband infrastructure. According to the Dept. of Communications, Climate Action & Environment broadband interactive maps, some areas in Kilmallock have high speed broadband, while other areas are listed as target areas for state intervention through the National Broadband Plan. In general, 30Mbps is available in the town.
The objectives for infrastructure are:
Objective IN 1: Water supply and storage
It is an objective of the Council working with Irish Water to:
(a) Facilitate improvements to the existing water supply system to cater for the needs of an expanding population in a sustainable manner.
(b) Ensure that development proposals provide adequate water infrastructure to facilitate sustainable development of the Kilmallock.
Objective IN 2: Water Conservation
It is an objective of the Council to promote awareness of sustainable water use and to encourage water conservation and demand minimisation by:
(a) Metering and control of leaks in the Water Conservation programme;
(b) Promoting Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems and grey water recycling in developments, and
(c) Minimising the potential for wastage through appropriate design and layout of pipe networks.
Objective IN 3: Sewerage facilities
It is the objective of the Council to:
(a) Ensure that adequate and appropriate waste-water infrastructure is provided for further development to avoid any deterioration in the receiving waters. In this regard, account shall be taken of existing outstanding permission in assessing impact.
(b) Ensure that development proposals provide adequate wastewater infrastructure to facilitate the proposed development. This includes the separation of foul and surface water through the provision of separate sewerage networks.
(c) Ensure that discharge meets the requirements of the Water Framework Directive.
Objective IN 4: Surface water disposal
It is the objective of the Council to:
- Require all applications for development demonstrate appropriate Sustainable Drainage System (SUDS) and alternative green infrastructure solutions to the surface water run-off are examined, and where feasible provided.
- Require the submission of surface water design calculations as part of planning applications to establish the suitability of the drainage of the site to a suitable outfall to establish if the existing surface water drainage system can accommodate the additional discharge generated by the proposed development.
- Require future applicants to investigate the potential for the provision of porous surfaces in buildings and at ground surface level to address surface water disposal in a long-term sustainable manner.
- Protect the surface water resources of the plan area, and in planning applications request provision of sediment and grease traps, and/or other pollution control measures deemed necessary to address this issue.
- Surface water runoff to be designed to agricultural runoff rates, subject to agreement with the Local Authority.
Objective IN 5: Flood Risk Management
It is an objective of the Council to:
(a) Implement the recommendations of the Department of the Environment Heritage and Local Government and the Office of Public Works Guidance Documents (November 2009)’, and any subsequent guidelines.
(b) Require any development proposal in a location identified as being subject to flooding to carry out a flood risk/catchment analysis for the development to assess the likely level of flood hazard that may affect the site to the satisfaction of the Council;
(c) Design the development to avoid flood levels, incorporating building design measures and materials to assist evacuation and minimise damage to property from flood waters;
(d) Demonstrate that the proposal will not result in increased risk of flooding elsewhere, restrict flow across floodplains, where compensatory storage/storm water retention measures shall be provided on site and will not alter the hydrological regime up stream or downstream or at the development location so as to pose an additional flood risk or to increase flood risk;
(e) Proposals should have provision to reduce the rate and quantity of run-off i.e. minimisation of concrete surfaces and use of semi permeable materials and include adequate measures to cope with flood risk, e.g. sustainable drainage systems.
(f) Have regard to the Office of Public Works Planning Policy Guidance in the design and consideration of development proposals; and
(g) Preserve riparian strips free of development and ensure adequate width to permit access for river maintenance.
(h) All flood risk assessment should have regard to national flood hazard mapping, predicted changes in flood events resulting from climate change and the River Shannon Catchment Flood Risk and Management Plan Studies (CFRAM) when completed by the OPW and the Shannon International River Basin Management Plan. The ‘development management justification test’ and the ‘plan – making justification test’ as detailed in The Planning System and Flood Risk Guidance document will guide Council responses to development proposals in areas at moderate or high risk of flooding.
Objective IN 6 : Waste efficiency, minimisation, re-use, recycle and recovery of waste
It is an objective of the Council to:
a) Ensure developers provide new housing with effective composting facilities by applying suitable planning conditions to new residential developments,
b) Require commercial and residential developments to be provided with adequate internal and external space for the correct storage of waste and recyclable materials. This is particularly important in relation to shared bin spaces such as apartment developments. In such cases the following must be provide for adequate space for waste to be segregated and stored in an appropriate manner. A multi-occupancy development will require a designated, ventilated waste storage area of sufficient size allowing for the segregation of waste. New and re-designed commercial buildings and apartment complexes should have waste facilities designed in a manner that waste can be collected directly from them and where possible waste and recyclables should
not have to be collected on the street or at the front of the premises,
c) Raise awareness of energy efficiency, waste management and minimisation, recycling,
d) Implement the Southern Regional Waste Management Plan.
Objective IN 7 : Broadband, smart Homes and smart buildings
It is the objective of the Council to:
a) Support the principles of Smart Homes and Smart Buildings as established by the Limerick Digital Strategy 2017 – 2020, and
b) Ensure that new development proposal incorporate modern communications infrastructure such as Broadband including ducting on an open access basis;
c) facilitate improved broadband services in accordance with the National Broadband Plan.
Objective IN8: Telecommunications
It is the objective of the Council to facilitate proposals for telecommunications masts antennae and ancillary equipment where it is established that there would be no negative impact on the surrounding area and that no other mode or location can be identified which would provide adequate telecommunication cover. When considering proposals for telecommunication masts, antennae and ancillary equipment, the Council will have regards to the DEHLG document ‘Telecommunication, Antennae and Supports Structures’ (DEHLG 1998) and any subsequent national guidance.
-  - National Policy Framework – Alternative Fuels Infrastructure for Transport in Ireland 2017 – 2020, DTTS
-  - ibid
-  - National Policy Framework – Alternative Fuel Infrastructure for Transport in Ireland 2017 – 2030, Department of Transport, Tourism and Sport, Table 1 Transport CO2 emissions by mode 2015, page 12